Archive

Posts Tagged ‘vaccines for college students’

What Parents of Every Teen Should Know About Meningitis

The most important thing parents of teens need to know about meningococcal disease is that it can be very serious.  And by serious, we mean debilitating and often deadly.

Even with prompt medical treatment, about 1 in 10 people with meningococcal disease will die from it. Of those who survive, about 1 to 2 will have permanent disabilities such as brain damage, hearing loss, loss of kidney function or limb amputations.

The best thing parents can do to protect their children from meningococcal disease is to get them vaccinated against all of the preventable forms of the disease.

 What causes meningitis and meningococcal disease?

Meningitis refers to a swelling of the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.   While meningitis is commonly caused by a bacterial or viral infection, it can also be caused by injuries, cancer, certain drugs, and other types of infections.

Meningococcal disease is specific to any illness caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also referred to as meningococcus or meningococcal meningitis).  These types of infections can cause meningitis, but can also cause bloodstream infections (known as bacteremia or septicemia).

It’s possible to have meningitis without having meningococcal disease, and it’s possibly to have a type of meningococcal disease that isn’t necessarily meningitis.  The specific cause of illness is important to identify because the treatment differs depending on the cause.

  • Bacterial forms of meningitis can be extremely dangerous and fast-moving and have the greatest potential for being fatal. The long-term effects of bacterial meningitis can include multiple amputations, hearing loss and kidney damage. Many, but not all, forms of bacterial meningitis can be prevented by vaccination.
  • Viral meningitis has similar symptoms to bacterial meningitis, but for the most part is neither as deadly nor as debilitating. There is no specific treatment available for viral meningitis, but most patients fully recover over time.
Meningococcal Disease Facts

Who is at risk?

While anyone can contract meningococcal disease, adolescents and young adults are among the population who have a higher risk for the disease due to their lifestyle factors.  For instance, the risk of meningococcal is higher for those who are living in crowded settings such as college dormitories, boarding schools, sleep-away camps or military barracks. Other factors that can raise the risk of infection include:

  • Attendance at a new school with students from geographically diverse areas
  • Irregular sleeping patterns
  • Active or passive smoking
  • Social situations where there is crowding
  • Moving to a new residence

How is it spread?

About one in ten people carry meningococcal bacteria in their nose or throat without showing any signs or symptoms of the disease. These people can unknowingly transmit the bacteria to others through the exchange of respiratory secretions during close or lengthy contact with someone’s saliva, such as through kissing or coughing, especially if they are living in close quarters.  Although meningococcal bacteria are very dangerous, they cannot live outside the body for very long.  This means that while contagious, the infection is not as easily spread as a cold virus.

How can it be prevented?

Currently, vaccination is the best defense against meningococcal disease. There are five major serogroups of meningococcal disease (A, C, W, Y and B). The three most commonly seen in the United States are B, C and Y, with one-third of all cases in the U.S. being of serogroup B.

In order to be protected against all the preventable strains of meningococcal disease, teens need to receive multiple doses of two different kinds of meningococcal vaccines.

Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine (MenACWY):  Routine vaccination with the conjugate is recommended at age 11-12 to protect against serogroups A, C, W and Y. Adolescents should also get a vaccine booster dose at age 16.

Meningococcal Serogroup B Vaccine (MenB): This vaccine is recommended for people 10 years or older who are at increased risk for serogroup B meningococcal infections including:

  • People at risk because of a serogroup B meningococcal disease outbreak.
  • Anyone whose spleen is damaged or has been removed.
  • Anyone with an immune system condition known as “persistent complement component deficiency”.
  • Anyone taking a drug called eculizumab (Soliris).
  • Microbiologists who routinely work with N. meningitidis isolates.

The CDC also recommends permissive use of the MenB vaccine for adolescents and young adults age 16-23, with a preferred age of 16 to 18. A permissive recommendation means that it is at a doctor’s discretion whether they will recommend the vaccine to those who don’t fall into the categories listed above.  If a provider doesn’t feel the patient is at risk, they may fail to mention the availability of the vaccine.

This does not mean that a parent can’t request or receive the vaccine for their child.    

It’s critical that parents understand that serogroup B meningococcal disease is not only the most common cause of meningococcal disease in adolescents and young adults, but it has also cause several outbreaks on college campuses over the past few years.

Meningococcal Disease on U.S. College Campuses, 2013-2017

Graphic compiled by the National Meningitis Association

The vaccine has been deemed safe by the FDA, and has been recommended by the CDC, so parents should feel comfortable getting the vaccine for their child, especially if they feel they are at risk of exposure.  If a child is attending college, parents may want to take the precaution of getting them vaccinated before they arrive on campus.  In the case of an outbreak, the vaccine will be recommended.  However, if your child is exposed before the outbreak is identified than it may be too late to benefit from the vaccine.

What are the symptoms and can it be treated?

The symptoms of meningococcal disease are the same for all of the serogroups.  Unfortunately, it is not easy for healthcare professionals to identify and diagnose the infection in its early stages and it’s often mistaken for the flu or other viral infections.  Symptoms tend to develop over several hours or over one or two days, and may include:

  • Sudden high fever
  • Severe headache
  • Stiff neck
  • Vomiting or nausea with headache
  • Confusion or difficulty concentrating
  • Seizures
  • Sleepiness or difficulty waking up
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Lack of interest in drinking and eating
  • Skin rash

Meningococcal disease can be treated with antibiotics, but treatment must begin early to be effective. Even if treatment is started as soon as possible, it might not prevent death or serious long-term complications such as hearing loss, brain damage, kidney disease or limb amputations.

Today we are grateful for moms like the ones featured in this video who are helping to raise awareness about the two available meningococcal vaccines for adolescents and young adults. May their stories help parents to make educated decisions about disease prevention.

Visit the following websites for more information on the dangers of meningitis and how it can be prevented.

Vaccinate Your Family – PreTeens & Teens Meningococcal Disease

National Meningitis Association

The Kimberly Coffey Foundation

The Emily Stillman Foundation

Meningitis Angels

March Madness Requires Both Shots To Defeat Meningococcal Disease

This guest post was provided by the National Meningitis Foundation (NMA) and first appeared on their Parents Who Protect blog.  

 

As our obsession with basketball’s March Madness has progressed to the Final Four, our efforts to encourage “both shots” in the fight against meningococcal disease remain at center court.

While March is a time when basketball steals the headlines, it’s also a time when meningococcal disease steals our children.  In fact, while meningococcal disease can strike at any time of year, the number of cases peaks in the winter and early spring. Unfortunately, for many National Meningitis Association (NMA) members, such as the member of Moms on Meningitis (M.O.M.) and Together Educating About Meningitis (T.E.A.M), March is a time when we remember those we lost to meningococcal disease.

And there have been plenty of others who never got their “shot” at life.  

NMA March Madness Infogram

The higher incidence of meningococcal disease in March can be seen in the headlines of the last few years.

In March 2014, a Drexel University student died after visiting Princeton University, which was nearing the end of an outbreak that impacted eight students. In 2015, the University of Oregon was battling an outbreak of meningococcal disease with two additional cases appearing in March. In 2016, students at both Penn State and Rutgers University were hospitalized with meningococcal disease in March. This year there were cases on three college campuses by mid-March: Wake Forest UniversityOld Dominion University, and Oregon State University. There has also been an outbreak, at an elementary school in Virginia.

To rise to the challenge of this other recurring “March Madness”, we must increase our efforts to raise awareness of meningococcal disease and its prevention.

There are two kinds of vaccines that students need to be protected from meningococcal disease, the MenACWY vaccine and the MenB vaccine.

  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends meningococcal vaccination against serogroups A, C, W and Y for all children at 11-12 with a booster at age 16 (MenACWY).
  • CDC recommends permissive use of meningococcal vaccination against serogroup B at ages 16-23, with a preferred age of 16 to 18 years (MenB). (Click here for more information.)

It’s important that students remain vigilant and be able to recognize the symptoms of meningococcal  disease including headache, fever, stiff neck, and a purplish rash, so that you can promptly seek medical attention.

SOTI_Mening_FB.png

This March, let’s get on the ball and take “both shots” to prevent the other March Madness.

The National Meningitis Association is a nonprofit organization founded by parents whose children have died or live with permanent disabilities from meningococcal disease.  Their mission is to educate people about meningococcal disease and its prevention.  To stay informed about meningococcal disease and how to prevent it, follow The National Meningitis Association on Facebook and Twitter and be sure to subscribe to their Parents Who Protect blog.

 

 

Make Sure Your College Student Has These Shots Before Returning To Campus

iStock_000078067721_Double.jpgTeens and young adults have a tendency to believe they’re completely invincible.  But their lifestyle – which often involves high levels of stress, inadequate amounts of sleep and close living quarters – can put them at an increased risk of certain infections such as flu, mumps, meningitis and HPV.  As students return to class after winter break, they’re  reunited with classmates, roommates, and professors who may have been exposed to infectious diseases during their travels to other states or other countries.

While it’s impossible to prevent every cough and sniffle, parents can help protect their kids by ensuring they’re up-to-date on all their recommended vaccines.

So what are all the vaccines that are recommended for teens and young adults?  

And wouldn’t they be required for school anyway?

Vaccine requirements vary by state and don’t necessarily include all the vaccines that the CDC recommends. Therefore, as winter break come to an end, parents should review their students’ immunization records and arrange for them to get any missing shots before they return to class.

Here are a few of the diseases that students should be protected against.

Influenza

Influenza is a dangerous viral infection that causes hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year in the U.S., even among health people of all ages.  For the best protection, the CDC recommends that everyone over the age of 6 months receive an annual influenza vaccine.

animated-young-adults

Unfortunately, while flu vaccination rates are typically the highest among children, rates tend to drop among teens and young adults. If your college student hasn’t already received their annual flu vaccine it’s not too late.  Bring them to their healthcare provider or local pharmacy to get them protected before they return to campus. Although it can take up to two weeks to develop antibodies post-vaccination, flu season often extends well into Spring, so students will benefit from protection for many months to come.

Mumps

Mumps may not be considered “common” in the U.S. thanks to a 99% decrease in mumps cases once mumps vaccination began in 1967, but there have been several mumps outbreaks on college campuses in the past year, and approximately 4,258 cases across 46 states and DC in 2016.

screen-shot-2017-01-04-at-3-47-00-pm

This shouldn’t come as much of a surprise when you consider that crowded environments, such a large classes and dormitory living can all contribute to the likelihood of outbreaks.  Also, since mumps is spread primarily through saliva, coughing and sneezing, teen behaviors such as kissing or sharing plates, utensils, cups, lipstick or cigarettes, are all factors that can increase the likelihood of transmission. Read more…

Is Your College Student Protected from This Deadly but Preventable Disease?

December 21, 2016 1 comment

Parents often go to great lengths to help their children succeed in college.  What they may not realize is that their children often arrive on campus unprotected from a life threatening, yet preventable disease known as meningococcal serogroup B.  

Four women, known as the ‘MenB Strong Moms’,  became united on a mission to save others after their teen children died from meningococcal serogroup B before a vaccine was available to prevent the disease.  Through a special partnership between The Kimberly Coffey Foundation and The Emily Stillman Foundation, they produced the following Meningitis B Shatters Dreams PSA to educate young adults and their parents about the availability of the MenB vaccine and to encourage college kids to get vaccinated while home for winter break.

“Our kids have brought us together and their message is loud and clear in this PSA.” says Alicia Stillman, Director of The Emily Stillman Foundation.  “We don’t want parents to have to bury their children like we have, and we want kids to take it upon themselves to get protected and ask for the MenB vaccine.”

In the past few years, there have been outbreaks of meningococcal serogroup B on several U.S. college campuses.  This isn’t surprising considering that one out of ten people have the bacterium that causes meningococcal disease in the back of their nose and throat with no signs or symptoms of disease.  Additionally, typical teen behaviors, such as living in close quarters, hanging out in large groups, sharing drinks or utensils, and kissing, all increase the risk of meningococcal disease.

And when meningococcal disease strikes, it strikes quickly.  In fact, one in ten teens and young adults who develop meningococcal disease will die from it, sometimes within 24 hours.  Those lucky enough to survive will often suffer significant physical and mental disabilities, ranging from deafness, nervous system problems, brain damage, or loss of limbs.

While most teens receive the recommended meningococcal vaccine known as MenACWY at age 16, or prior to attending college, the MenACWY vaccine does not prevent the serogroup B strain.  Since this B strain accounts for approximately half of all meningococcal cases in the U.S. among those age 17-22, the MenB Strong Moms believe it is imperative that young adults and their parents understand the options for prevention.  Unfortunately, although the MenB vaccine has been licensed for over a year, many doctors are still not mentioning it to their patients and therefore, most parents and young adults don’t realize the vaccine exists. Read more…

5 Ways to Keep Your College-Bound Student Healthy

August 10, 2016 2 comments

Preparing a kid for college is akin to preparing for their arrival at birth.  There are so many details to think about, choices to consider and preparations to be made that it’s easy to become completely overwhelmed.  As parents, we want nothing more than to ensure that our children are well prepared – both physically and emotionally – for all the challenges they are about to face.

Graduation
While it’s natural to focus on the dorm items your child might need, parents should also help prepare their teen for the responsibilities they will have in managing their own health. Once they move into that dorm, you will no longer be there to fill their prescriptions, fetch their medicine, make their doctor’s appointments, or otherwise ensure they are getting the medical attention they need.  It will be up to them to maintain a healthy diet, get adequate rest, and protect themselves from the dangers of alcohol, drugs and unwanted or unsafe sex.  They will need to know when to seek professional medical attention if they should get sick, injured or find themselves struggling with mental or physical needs.

Before your child heads off to college, here are five things you can do to help them stay healthy:

1.) Get your child a physical exam.  

When kids are young, parents are accustomed to bringing them in for well-visits.  However, it’s not uncommon for kids to miss yearly check-ups in lieu of sports physicals and sick visits.  Before your child heads to campus, make sure to schedule a comprehensive health exam.  The conversation your child has with the doctor should help prepare them to manage their current health conditions while away at school (such as any known allergies, specialist appointments and regular medications) while also opening the discussion to the dangers of stress, poor diet, inadequate sleep, binge drinking, drug experimentation and unsafe sex.  If their provider fails to cover these issues completely, it’s important that parents weigh in on these concerns as well.  You can let your child know that while you trust them to make responsible decisions, you are always available for advice and support.

2.) Get all the recommended vaccines, not just those required by the school.  

For many students, college can be a time of significant stress.  Students don’t always eat a healthy diet or get the proper rest. They live in close quarters and have a tendency to share cups and eating utensils.  At some point your child may travel, or engage with fellow students and faculty members who have traveled, to areas where diseases are more prevalent.  And studies show that college students are more likely to engage in risky behavior. All these conditions make students more susceptible to illness.  It is also what contributes to the chances of outbreaks occurring on collegiStock_000078067721_Double.jpge campuses.

Making sure your child is up-to-date on all the recommended vaccines, not just those required by the school, can help them avoid dangerous and sometimes even deadly illnesses.  While there are several immunizations that are recommended for college-age students, each state and college may have different admission requirements.

To best protect your college-bound student from preventable diseases, parents should consider the following vaccines for students before they arrive on campus: Read more…

Meningococcal Disease Killed My Child, But a New Vaccine Means it Doesn’t Have to Kill Yours

August 2, 2016 2 comments

Me head and shoulderThis guest post was written by Neal Raisman, PhD, to highlight the threat of meningococcal disease in the U.S. as part of Vaccinate Your Family’s “State of the ImmUnion” campaign.

My son Isaac was a very healthy 26-year-old who worked out every day and took great pride in how and what he ate. On September 24, 2005 he called home from college to tell his mother he had a terrible headache and felt lousy. Since he complained of chills and a fever, my wife and I thought he was suffering with the flu and told him to get some sleep and drink lots of fluids. He called again to report that the headache was even worse and he felt even sicker. Again, his mother re-assured him that it was probably the flu.

IsaacLittle did we know at that time, but Isaac did not have the flu.

What he had was serogroup type B meningitis and it was quickly eating at his body and brain.

He died soon after that call with his mother. It wasn’t until later that night that I was able to get into his apartment where I found his body. This is the last photo that was ever taken of our son.

Isaac had received a meningitis vaccine before college, but back in 2005, the only meningococcal vaccine available was one that covered the serogroup strains of A, C, W and Y.  At that time there was no vaccine to prevent the B strain that killed our son.

But there is now.

I’m sharing our story today so that every mother and father will know that serogroup B meningococcal disease kills and maims without mercy.

Not every person infected will die like Isaac.  Sometimes victims will live in a brain-dead coma.  Some will lose limbs.  Now that I know how quick and devastating this disease is, I must caution parents to do everything they can to protect their children before it is too late.

In 2014, nine years after we lost Isaac, the FDA approved the first vaccine to prevent the serogroup B strain of meningococcal disease.

In order to offer the most complete protection from all the preventable strains of meningococcal disease, this MenB vaccine needs to be administered in addition to the MenACWY vaccine that is already on the recommended immunization schedule.

While the current burden of disease appears to be low, there have been outbreaks of serogroup B meningococcal disease at U.S. colleges that have resulted in loss of limbs and loss of life.  Following FDA approval, it is customary for the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) to evaluate the data and determine whether the vaccine should be added to the recommended schedule.   With FDA approval, the safety of the vaccine was not in question, however the ACIP felt it was necessary to continue to review data pertaining to vaccine effectiveness, duration of effectiveness and impact of the vaccine on carriage and herd immunity.  Therefore, the initial ACIP decision was to make a routine recommendation for individuals at highest risk of disease and in outbreak situations, while recommending that those in the 16-23 year age range “may be vaccinated to provide short term protection against the strain”. This is what is known as a “permissive” or “Category B” recommendation.

In the beginning, there was speculation that due to this “Category B” recommendation, that not all insurance companies would cover the cost of the vaccine.  However, as a condition of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), all health plans must start covering any recommended vaccine (even Category B) with no out-of-pocket costs when provided by an in-network healthcare provider.  Health plans have until one year after the effective date of the recommendation to comply, so it is possible that some patients won’t be covered until their plan renewal, which may occur more than a year after the October 2015 recommendation was made. However, public health partners nationwide continue to report that providers (including Vaccine For Children providers) are not universally stocking the vaccine, nor making strong recommendations for its use. In addition, although the majority of health plans are covering the cost, some may not be following ACA guidelines, which can be quite ambiguous. Some may be covering the cost of the vaccine for one category of recipients (i.e. high risk) but not those who “may” be vaccinated.

As a parent of a child who died from meningococcal disease, I still worry that this ambiguous recommendation is leaving our children unprotected.

A vaccine is now available to prevent the B strain that my son died of.  Yet this limited recommendation means that many doctors won’t be discussing the availability of the vaccine, and many parents won’t know that the vaccine is available.  Worse yet, many parents may wrongfully believe their child is fully protected from all the preventable meningococcal strains when their child receives the MenACWY, which is not accurate.

So now we are left wondering, what is the benefit of the serogroup B meningococcal vaccine if parents aren’t aware that it is available or believe they can’t afford it?  How many lives will be lost due to the current policy?  And what will it cost to stop letting young men and women be horribly maimed or die?

Read more…

How My Vaccinated Daughter Died From Meningitis and What I’m Doing About It

February 2, 2016 8 comments
This is a guest post, written by Alicia Stillman, Director of the Emily Stillman Foundation.  One of the missions of the Foundation is to raise awareness of meningococcal disease and the various vaccines that are now available to prevent it.    

February 2, 2013 my life changed forever.  I was told my beautiful and healthy nineteen year old daughter no longer had any brain activity, and that she would die.  Those words will forever haunt me.  There is no preparation, no training, and no practice for what was to come.  The loss of a child is like none other.  It is the wrong order. When you lose a child, a piece of you dies as well.

EmilyStillman

Emily was a sophomore at Kalamazoo College when she tragically contracted bacterial meningitis.  On February 2nd, 2013, Emily passed away with her family by her side.  Emily was able to donate 6 of her organs to 5 recipients, along with tissue and bones to countless others.

On January 31, 2013 my middle daughter Emily called home from college, and mentioned she had a headache.  I thought she was possibly coming down with the flu.  She thought it may be from lack of sleep.  We decided she would take Motrin and go to bed.  Several hours later she woke up to increased pain and was taken to the hospital where she was treated for a migraine.  It was not until hours later that the medical professionals realized they may be looking at meningococcal disease, and performed a lumbar puncture to confirm.

The entire two hour drive to the hospital I begged the medical professionals to double check the results.  Since I knew my daughter had been vaccinated against meningitis, I did not believe it was possible for her to have that disease.  I feared that something else would go untreated, and I wanted them to heal her.

When I arrived at the hospital, Emily was already unconscious as they prepared her for a craniotomy to relieve the swelling in her brain.  When the nurse took me to see her, she asked if I wanted them to call clergy.  That was the first time I actually realized the seriousness of this disease.  I did not understand how this could be happening.  My daughter only had a headache.  She was vaccinated.

Within 30 hours from the onset of her headache, my daughter was brain dead.  Her life was over.  We decided Emily would want to be an organ donor.  She was able to save five lives with six organs, and countless others with her bones and tissue.  She was a hero.

StillmanFamily2As I said goodbye to my sweet daughter in that hospital bed, I made her a promise.  Read more…