Will we ever stop seeing cases of measles?
Last week, officials confirmed the first case of measles in Michigan this year. That may not sound significant. It’s only one case in one state, but it’s actually one of 21 cases of measles reported across 7 different states so far this year.
Last week we also heard the World Health Organization warn of measles outbreaks across Europe. This image, published in an article from The Sun in the UK, illustrates how widespread the outbreaks have been. There are currently 14 countries seeing endemic transmission of measles, to include such countries as France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Romania, Switzerland and the Ukraine. Maybe not the countries you were expecting. And maybe some countries you plan to visit.
Although measles was declared eliminated in the U.S. in 2000, and even eliminated from all of the Americas in 2016, measles still kills an estimated 115,000 children per year all across the globe – that’s 314 measles related child deaths each day. Clearly, measles remains a signifiant global health concern.
And it’s not just measles deaths we worry about. Measles can be a serious illness requiring hospitalization. As many as 1 out of every 20 children with measles gets pneumonia, and about 1 child in every 1,000 who get measles will develop encephalitis – a swelling of the brain that can lead to convulsions, and can leave the child deaf or intellectually disabled. For every 1,000 children who get measles, one or two will die from it.
When we consider the impact of measles worldwide, we begin to understand why every case is relevant and in someway related, and here’s why:
Measles is a highly contagious airborne disease.
When one person has measles, 90 percent of the people they come into close contact with will become infected, if they are not already immune. The virus can linger in the air for up to two hours after an infected person has coughed or sneezed. If other people breathe the contaminated air or touch the infected surface, then touch their eyes, noses, or mouths, they can become infected. This means you don’t even have to have contact with the contagious person to become infected. That is why one a case of measles can easily be spread to others.
Disease elimination is not the same as disease eradication.
Measles elimination is defined as the absence of continuous disease transmission for 12 months or more in a specific geographic area. Measles is no longer endemic in the United States, but that doesn’t mean we don’t still see measles cases. The cases we see here begin with transmission elsewhere. Sometimes cases originate with U.S. citizens who unknowingly contract measles while traveling abroad and then became sick and spread the virus upon returning home. Other times, travelers from other countries arrive in the U.S. while contagious. In both instances, these individuals can spread measles to anyone they come in contact with who isn’t already immune. In recent years, this has caused several widespread outbreaks of measles in the U.S.
There are still many people in this world who are not vaccinated against measles.
It’s estimated that in 2010 about 85% of the global population has received at least one dose of measles vaccine. While that may sound good, it’s still not good enough to stop the spread of measles. Because measles is extremely contagious, the immunity threshold – which is the percentage of individuals who need immunity in order to prevent a disease from spreading – is as high as 95%. Sadly, as of 2014, only about 63% of countries have an immunization rate that is above 90% and even 90% isn’t good enough. Read more…