This guest post was provided by the National Meningitis Foundation (NMA) and first appeared on their Parents Who Protect blog.
As our obsession with basketball’s March Madness has progressed to the Final Four, our efforts to encourage “both shots” in the fight against meningococcal disease remain at center court.
While March is a time when basketball steals the headlines, it’s also a time when meningococcal disease steals our children. In fact, while meningococcal disease can strike at any time of year, the number of cases peaks in the winter and early spring. Unfortunately, for many National Meningitis Association (NMA) members, such as the member of Moms on Meningitis (M.O.M.) and Together Educating About Meningitis (T.E.A.M), March is a time when we remember those we lost to meningococcal disease.
- N.M.A. board member, Leslie Maier lost her son Chris on March 2nd
- M.O.M. Judy Miller lost her daughter Beth on March 12th
And there have been plenty of others who never got their “shot” at life.
The higher incidence of meningococcal disease in March can be seen in the headlines of the last few years.
In March 2014, a Drexel University student died after visiting Princeton University, which was nearing the end of an outbreak that impacted eight students. In 2015, the University of Oregon was battling an outbreak of meningococcal disease with two additional cases appearing in March. In 2016, students at both Penn State and Rutgers University were hospitalized with meningococcal disease in March. This year there were cases on three college campuses by mid-March: Wake Forest University, Old Dominion University, and Oregon State University. There has also been an outbreak, at an elementary school in Virginia.
To rise to the challenge of this other recurring “March Madness”, we must increase our efforts to raise awareness of meningococcal disease and its prevention.
There are two kinds of vaccines that students need to be protected from meningococcal disease, the MenACWY vaccine and the MenB vaccine.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends meningococcal vaccination against serogroups A, C, W and Y for all children at 11-12 with a booster at age 16 (MenACWY).
- CDC recommends permissive use of meningococcal vaccination against serogroup B at ages 16-23, with a preferred age of 16 to 18 years (MenB). (Click here for more information.)
It’s important that students remain vigilant and be able to recognize the symptoms of meningococcal disease including headache, fever, stiff neck, and a purplish rash, so that you can promptly seek medical attention.
This March, let’s get on the ball and take “both shots” to prevent the other March Madness.
The National Meningitis Association is a nonprofit organization founded by parents whose children have died or live with permanent disabilities from meningococcal disease. Their mission is to educate people about meningococcal disease and its prevention. To stay informed about meningococcal disease and how to prevent it, follow The National Meningitis Association on Facebook and Twitter and be sure to subscribe to their Parents Who Protect blog.
Teens and young adults have a tendency to believe they’re completely invincible. But their lifestyle – which often involves high levels of stress, inadequate amounts of sleep and close living quarters – can put them at an increased risk of certain infections such as flu, mumps, meningitis and HPV. As students return to class after winter break, they’re reunited with classmates, roommates, and professors who may have been exposed to infectious diseases during their travels to other states or other countries.
While it’s impossible to prevent every cough and sniffle, parents can help protect their kids by ensuring they’re up-to-date on all their recommended vaccines.
So what are all the vaccines that are recommended for teens and young adults?
And wouldn’t they be required for school anyway?
Vaccine requirements vary by state and don’t necessarily include all the vaccines that the CDC recommends. Therefore, as winter break come to an end, parents should review their students’ immunization records and arrange for them to get any missing shots before they return to class.
Here are a few of the diseases that students should be protected against.
Influenza is a dangerous viral infection that causes hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths each year in the U.S., even among health people of all ages. For the best protection, the CDC recommends that everyone over the age of 6 months receive an annual influenza vaccine.
Unfortunately, while flu vaccination rates are typically the highest among children, rates tend to drop among teens and young adults. If your college student hasn’t already received their annual flu vaccine it’s not too late. Bring them to their healthcare provider or local pharmacy to get them protected before they return to campus. Although it can take up to two weeks to develop antibodies post-vaccination, flu season often extends well into Spring, so students will benefit from protection for many months to come.
Mumps may not be considered “common” in the U.S. thanks to a 99% decrease in mumps cases once mumps vaccination began in 1967, but there have been several mumps outbreaks on college campuses in the past year, and approximately 4,258 cases across 46 states and DC in 2016.
This shouldn’t come as much of a surprise when you consider that crowded environments, such a large classes and dormitory living can all contribute to the likelihood of outbreaks. Also, since mumps is spread primarily through saliva, coughing and sneezing, teen behaviors such as kissing or sharing plates, utensils, cups, lipstick or cigarettes, are all factors that can increase the likelihood of transmission. Read more…
Every Child By Two’s online platforms have reached over 11 million people with evidence based vaccine messaging in 2016. As we look back at the record number of views and shares there have been on Shot of Prevention blog posts this past year, we’re especially grateful to our blog readers, contributors and subscribers.
Whether you have shared a post, shared your story, or shared your expertise, know that our growth and success would not have been possible without your support. Thanks to you, people are referencing our content before making important immunization decisions for themselves and their families. In these final days of 2016, we hope that you will revisit these top five posts from the past year and share them with others in your social networks. Together, we can continue to engage more people in these important immunization discussions.
In 1949, Judith contracted polio along with 42,000 other people in the U.S. Judith survived five months in the hospital and multiple surgeries, but sadly 2,720 people died from polio that year. As Judith bravely shares her story, she explains that it represents an inconvenient truth to people who are in denial about the risks of polio. She is continually shocked by people who refuse vaccines, who refuse to believe she ever suffered with polio, or who actually believe the polio vaccine is part of a government or “big pharma” conspiracy. By sharing Judith’s story we hope to encourage continued polio vaccination and support of polio eradication worldwide and applaud people like Judith who are courageous enough to speak out in support of vaccines. To read Judith’s story, click here.
Emily Stillman was pronounced brain-dead just 30 hours from the onset of a severe headache. What they though was a migraine turned out to be meningococcal disease. In this post Emily’s mother Alicia explains that although Emily received a meningococcal vaccine, the MCV4 vaccine she received only protected her against meningococcal serogroups A, C, W and Y. It did not protect her against serogroup B, which is what caused Emily’s death. Since Emily’s death, a MenB vaccine has been approved for use. However, most parents still don’t know it exists and therefore, most students are still not protected.
As the Director of The Emily Stillman Foundation, Alicia Stillman helps educate people about the importance of “complete and total” protection against all serogroups of meningococcal disease. This means ensuring that teens and young adults receive both meningococcal vaccines; the MCV4 vaccine that protects against serogroups A,C, W and Y, as well as a MenB vaccine series. To learn more about fully protecting our youth against meningococcal disease, read Alicia’s guest blog here.
Although the HPV vaccine is one of the most effective ways we have to prevent numerous types of cancer, it is still being grossly underutilized. As a result of persistent but inaccurate myths circulating on the internet, some parents are more fearful of the HPV vaccine than the human papillomavirus itself. This is causing them to refuse or delay HPV vaccination for their children.
In this popular blog post, we highlight ten critical facts that address the most common misconceptions about HPV infection and the vaccine that can help prevent this very common infection. To learn more, be sure to read the post here.
There are many misconceptions about hepatitis B and how the infection is transmitted. Because of this, many parents don’t consider their children to be at risk of infection and so they question the need for a hepatitis B vaccine at birth. In this post, the Prevent Cancer Foundation explains the connection between hepatitis B and liver cancer and discusses ways in which infants and children can unknowingly contract hepatitis B. Their Think About the Link™ education campaign suggests that vaccinating infants before they leave the hospital is a critical first step in protecting your newborn from a virus that can lead to cancer later in life. To learn more about Hepatitis B and the vaccine to prevent it, click here.
Back in the 1980’s, Barbara Loe Fisher claimed that the whole cell pertussis vaccine (DTP) was dangerous and causing too many adverse events. Her complaints prompted the development of the more purified (acellular) pertussis vaccines that we use today; DTaP for infants, and Tdap for adolescents and adults. While studies have shown that these newer vaccines are not as effective as the old whole cell pertussis vaccine, they are the best protections we have against the dangers of pertussis.
Unfortunately, those who need protection the most are those who are too young to be vaccinated. Infants are at high risk of severe complications from pertussis, to include hospitalization and death, but babies don’t begin receiving pertussis vaccine until two months of age. After newborn Calle Van Tornhout contracted pertussis from a hospital nurse at birth, she died at just 37 days of age. Callie’s death has had her home state of Indiana considering a bill that would mandate pertussis vaccination among health care workers. But Barbara Loe Fisher is opposed to that as well. To read more about the history of pertussis vaccines, click here.
If you have suggestions for topics you would like us to address in 2016, or you would like to contribute a guest post for publication, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.
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Thanks again for your continued support and best wishes for a happy and healthy new year!
Parents often go to great lengths to help their children succeed in college. What they may not realize is that their children often arrive on campus unprotected from a life threatening, yet preventable disease known as meningococcal serogroup B.
Four women, known as the ‘MenB Strong Moms’, became united on a mission to save others after their teen children died from meningococcal serogroup B before a vaccine was available to prevent the disease. Through a special partnership between The Kimberly Coffey Foundation and The Emily Stillman Foundation, they produced the following Meningitis B Shatters Dreams PSA to educate young adults and their parents about the availability of the MenB vaccine and to encourage college kids to get vaccinated while home for winter break.
“Our kids have brought us together and their message is loud and clear in this PSA.” says Alicia Stillman, Director of The Emily Stillman Foundation. “We don’t want parents to have to bury their children like we have, and we want kids to take it upon themselves to get protected and ask for the MenB vaccine.”
In the past few years, there have been outbreaks of meningococcal serogroup B on several U.S. college campuses. This isn’t surprising considering that one out of ten people have the bacterium that causes meningococcal disease in the back of their nose and throat with no signs or symptoms of disease. Additionally, typical teen behaviors, such as living in close quarters, hanging out in large groups, sharing drinks or utensils, and kissing, all increase the risk of meningococcal disease.
And when meningococcal disease strikes, it strikes quickly. In fact, one in ten teens and young adults who develop meningococcal disease will die from it, sometimes within 24 hours. Those lucky enough to survive will often suffer significant physical and mental disabilities, ranging from deafness, nervous system problems, brain damage, or loss of limbs.
While most teens receive the recommended meningococcal vaccine known as MenACWY at age 16, or prior to attending college, the MenACWY vaccine does not prevent the serogroup B strain. Since this B strain accounts for approximately half of all meningococcal cases in the U.S. among those age 17-22, the MenB Strong Moms believe it is imperative that young adults and their parents understand the options for prevention. Unfortunately, although the MenB vaccine has been licensed for over a year, many doctors are still not mentioning it to their patients and therefore, most parents and young adults don’t realize the vaccine exists. Read more…
Losing your 20 year old healthy child to flu is something no parent ever expects to happen.
by Franki Andersen
Seven months ago, I lost my beautiful daughter, Brittany Danielle Andersen, at the age of 20. I’m sharing her story so that parents and young adults will know that the flu doesn’t just take young kids and old people. It takes whomever it wants at any age.
As a mother, there is nothing worse than seeing your child sick and hospitalized. When Britt was young she loved to sing, dance, play on her swing set and dress up. But we had a few medical scares in those early years. In fact, she was on life support four times between the ages of 18 months and 6 years due to repeated bouts of strep throat that would effect her lungs. But then, after a surgery to remove her tonsils and adnoids, she never got sick again, and I was grateful that those hospital days were behind us.
That was, until she fell ill with influenza A earlier this year.
It was a Thursday, March 24th and she said her throat was itchy so she picked up some TheraFlu before I dropped her at her dads’ house. I talked to her later that evening to see how she was feeling, and I could hear how the sore throat had altered her voice. But she said that she was fine.
The next day, her father dropped her off before work. She stood in the doorway for a minute and when I asked her if she was coming in, her reply was “I don’t quite feel like myself”.
I asked her if she had breakfast and she said no, so she had some toast and juice before going to lie down. I propped her up with some pillows so she was sitting upright on her bed and about fifteen minutes later I checked in on her and asked how she was. Her reply was simply “Ok” but that obviously wasn’t true because those were the last words she ever said to me.
Around 11:45, I heard a weird rattle coming from her room. I went in and found her lying on her back. When I tried to wake her, I noticed white saliva coming out of her mouth. I called 911, and when they got there, they could not get a pulse. They worked on her for what seemed like eternity and then put her in the ambulance. I followed the ambulance to the hospital and at 2pm they told us they got a pulse back.
What a relief, I thought and collapsed into a chair.
They then life-flighted her to Sioux Falls, SD. When I arrived there the head nurse and lung doctor told me that she was not stabilizing. They had maxed out all the blood pressure meds they could give, and nothing was working. They said the word septis, which I was unfamiliar with at the time, and they told me I would need to “make a decision”.
At 6:30 am on Saturday, March 26th, 2016 I made that decision and my daughter was taken off of life support.
This guest post was written by Carolyn who works as a Home Health Community Nurse and who originally shared her son’s story on the Nurses Who Vaccinate blog to help raise awareness of the symptoms and dangers of pertussis.
My son is a healthy 16-year-old, middle linebacker for his Varsity football team. He jet skis, is an avid boater, plays lacrosse, and enjoys working out, eating healthy and exercising. I never suspected he would suffer with a vaccine preventable disease.
His cough was mild at first. Not a nagging cough, not a wet cough, just a mild cough. I asked my son if he was feeling well and although he said he was fine, I gave him cough syrup and took his temperature. It was normal (hint #1) and we both went to sleep, although I did hear him cough occasionally through the night.
This marked the beginning of the longest 7 weeks of our lives.
The occasional cough continued for a week, but then I noticed it was worsening, and it was making him very short of breath. One day he called me from school and asked me to pick him up. I took him to urgent care, where they diagnosed him with bronchitis, gave him amoxicillin, put him on a five-day dose of prednisone and gave him an inhaler.
That night was the beginning of the nightmare. He coughed so violently that he became short of breath. He was gasping and choking and even began vomiting (hint #2). This continued through the next day and night. He was exhausted. I was exhausted. And even though I am a nurse, I felt helpless.
I took him to the local Emergency Department where the pediatric physician prescribed an albuterol nebulizer and a chest X-ray. The chest x-ray came back crystal clear (hint #3). When I questioned the doctor about the vomiting, they suspected it was due to a gag reflex, but they decided to give him saline for dehydration and take blood and urine samples.
All of his blood work came back fine except for his neutrophils and his monocytes which were only slightly elevated (hint #4). They treated him as a case of atypical pneumonia and put him on a five-day dose of Zithromax and advised us to continue the prednisone until finished.
During the next 10 days, as he completed the medications, my son continued to have these bouts of uncontrollable violent coughing, always resulting in vomiting, choking on phlegm and gasping. He was eating, but also losing weight, and he was in and out of school, often due to being up all night coughing.
One evening he vomited in the basin where I noticed black stringy flecks. I immediately thought it was blood, but he assured me it was something he had eaten. The next morning he vomited again, and this time it was phlegm with blackened red strings (hint #5). I put the vomit in a baggie, put him in the car and took him back to the emergency room.
His sample tested positive for blood and so they gave him several nebulizer treatments, upped his prednisone, repeated the chest x-ray (which again came back clear), prescribed the inhaler every four hours and released him. With the increased prednisone, the cough did slow down a bit, but he still was vomiting phlegm and gasping, so I made a follow-up appointment with his physician where they did a thorough exam and diagnosed him with pertussis.
Pertussis? Really? How did my healthy kid get whooping cough? I was diligent in getting him vaccinated. How did three different doctors miss this?
Last week, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) held it’s third and final meeting of 2016. The agenda included presentations pertaining to hepatitis B, pertussis, HPV, meningococcal, herpes zoster, pneumococcal and RSV vaccines, and surveillance updates on Zika and influenza viruses.
During the two-day meeting, the committee took nine votes on newly proposed vaccine recommendations that addressed vaccination timing, number of doses needed, and dosing intervals for hepatitis B, pertussis, HPV and meningococcal vaccines. They also approved the child, adolescent and adult immunization schedules.
This post provides a recap of each agenda item in the order they occurred.
Hepatitis B Vaccine
The recommended first dose of the three-series hepatitis B vaccine is often referred to as “birth dose” and is typically administered to infants in the hospital after birth. At this meeting, the Hepatitis B Work Group asked that the Committee consider removal of the permissive language that appears at the end of the recommendation which allows for a delay of the birth dose until after hospital discharge.
When hepatitis B vaccine is administered within 24 hours of birth it can help prevent transmission of the hepatitis B virus from an infected mother to her child. The intent of the birth dose is to provide an additional safety net to prevent transmission from HepB positive mothers that are not properly identified due to errors in maternal testing or reporting. In these instances, when the mother is not properly identified as HepB positive before birth, the HepB vaccine alone is 75% effective in preventing prenatal transmission, and 94% effective when used in conjunction with Hepatitis B immune globulin.
Since delaying hepatitis B vaccination can interfere with the prevention of Hepatitis B – especially in a child unknowingly born to a HepB positive mother – the HepB Work Group proposed that the reference to delaying vaccination be removed from the recommendation. It had originally been added in 2005, but the data suggests that administering the birth dose in the hospital leads to timely completion of the series. The current birth dose coverage was stated to be 72.4% of children, which remains below the Healthy People 2020 goal of 84%.
The Committee voted to remove the permissive language as well as include new language to clarify that the first dose of vaccine should be administered within 24 hours of birth, which is more explicit than “before hospital discharge”.
The anticipated changes to the previous recommendation are indicated below, however the exact wording may differ once published by the CDC:
“For all medically stable infants weighing 2,000 grams or more at birth and born to HBsAg-negative mothers, the first dose of vaccine should be administered
before hospital dischargewithin 24 hours of birth. Only single antigen HepB vaccine should be used for the birth dose. On a case-by-case basis and only in rare circumstances, the first dose may be delayed until after hospital discharge for an infant who weighs 2,000 grams or more and whose mother is HBsAG-negative”.
*It should be noted that for those infants with birth weight of less than 2,000 grams, the birth dose is not counted as part of the vaccine series.
There was some discussion concerning the removal of the option to delay vaccination and it was emphasized that having a clear recommendation from the ACIP is not a vaccine mandate. Rather, practitioners, public health professionals and parents rely on the ACIP recommendations as expert guidance and best practice. The Hepatitis B “birth dose” has been a successful strategy to help eliminate hepatitis B virus transmission in the U.S., and the ACIP’s revised recommendations only emphasize the importance of vaccinating within the 24 hours timeframe that will help prevent further transmission.
Other key updates to the hepatitis B vaccine recommendations included:
- Providing examples of chronic liver disease, including recommending HepB vaccine for persons with HCV infection.
- Post vaccination serologic testing for infants who’s mother’s HBsAg status remains unknown indefinitely.
- Testing HBsAg-positive pregnant women for HBV DNA.
For more information as to why babies need a Hepatitis B vaccine at birth, read these Shot of Prevention blog posts here.
The Committee reviewed the history of Tdap vaccination in pregnant women and reviewed studies that found that maternal Tdap vaccination to both safe and effective at preventing infant pertussis. Read more…